II. There is no Instinct for War
III. Why There Are So Few Women Warriors
IV. History of Warfare
V. Warfare and Marriage
Notes and References
Note 1. Aggressive behavior in mammals may be divided into at least three different motivational systems: offense, defense, and predation (Adams,1979). They each have different brain mechanisms, motor patterns, and motivating stimuli. Human anger corresponds to offense; it is this motivational system that is usually invoked by people who claim that war is based on an "aggressive instinct." The original work that was based on rodents and carnivores has more recently been expanded to include primates as well (Adams and Schoel, 1982). It is upon the latter work that I have based my motivational analysis of warfare in stateless societies.
Adams, D. B. (1979). Brain mechanisms for offense, defense, and submission. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 200-241.
Adams, D. B. (1980). Motivational systems of agonistic behavior in muroid rodents: A comparative review and neural model. Aggressive Behavior, 6, 295-346.
Adams, D. B. (1983). Why there are so few women warriors. Behavior Science Research, 28, 3.
Adams, D. B. (1984). There is no instinct for war. Psychological Journal (Moscow), 5, 140-144 (in Russian).
Adams, D. B. and Schoel. W. M. (1982). A statistical analysis of the social behavior of the male stumptail macaque (Macaca arctoides). American Journal of Primatology, 2, 249-273.
Durant. J. R. (1981). The beast in man: An historical perspective on the biology of human aggression. in: Brain. P. and Benton. D. (eds.). The biology of aggression. Sidjhoof: The Netherlands.
Gandhi. M.K. (1954). Gandhi's autobiography. Public Affairs Press: Washington.
King. M. L. Jr. (1958). Stride toward freedom. Harper and Bros.: New York.
Lifton. R. J. and Falk, R. (1982). Indefensible weapons: The political and psychological case against nuclearism. Basic Books: New York.
Meggitt, M. (1977). Blood is their argument: Warfare among the Mae Enga tribesmen. Mayfield: Palo Alto. California.
Talavera, J., Cole, T., and Adams, D. B. (1984). Estrus and offense in the rat. Paper presented to biennial meeting of International Society for Research on Aggression, Turku, Finland.
Wahlstrom, R. (1984). Fear of war, conceptions of war, and peace activities: Their relation to self-esteem in young people. Paper presented to 4th Congress of International Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War, Helsinki, Finland.