Brain Mechanisms for Offense, Defense, and Submission
Figure 3: Interactions between defense and submission Page 19

figure 3

Figure 3. Interactions between defense and submission. Pathways facilitating defense are shown above, and those facilitating submission are below. The principle interactions are mediated by two inhibitory pathways, shown as solid lines, from the defense zone of the amygdala to the consociate modulator of the ventromedial hypothalamus, and from the ventromedial hypothalamus to the defense motivational mechanism in the midbrain central gray. Other possible inhibitory pathways, shown as dotted lines, include one from the ventromedial hypothalamus to the perifornical portion of the forebrain defense pathway, one from the septum to the forebrain defense pathway, and one from the anterior hypothalamus to the forebrain defense pathway.

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