Figure 4. Neural circuitry for offense. Various types of motivating stimuli activate the amygdala (competitive fighting stimuli), corticomedial amygdala (unfamiliar conspecific stimuli), olfactory tubercle or anterior olfactory nucleus (testosterone-dependent pheromones, effective only in males), and septum (familiar territory?). These motivating influences are conveyed to a midbrain motivational mechanism for offense by way of the medial forebrain bundle in the lateral hypothalamus. The offense motivational mechanism activates motor patterning mechanisms for approach and chase, bite-and-kick attack, and upright and sideways postures. These mechanisms do not produce motor patterns unless they simultaneously recieve appropriate visual or tactile releasing stimuli.