Brain Mechanisms for Offense, Defense, and Submission
Figure 4: Neural circuitry for offense Page 20

figure 4

Figure 4. Neural circuitry for offense. Various types of motivating stimuli activate the amygdala (competitive fighting stimuli), corticomedial amygdala (unfamiliar conspecific stimuli), olfactory tubercle or anterior olfactory nucleus (testosterone-dependent pheromones, effective only in males), and septum (familiar territory?). These motivating influences are conveyed to a midbrain motivational mechanism for offense by way of the medial forebrain bundle in the lateral hypothalamus. The offense motivational mechanism activates motor patterning mechanisms for approach and chase, bite-and-kick attack, and upright and sideways postures. These mechanisms do not produce motor patterns unless they simultaneously recieve appropriate visual or tactile releasing stimuli.

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