Brain Mechanisms for Offense, Defense, and Submission
References N-Z Page 60

Title/Abstract page

Pages 1 - 2

Defense: motivational mechanism
Page 3

Defense: motivating stimuli
Pages 4 - 5

Defense: motor patterning mechanism
Page 6

Defense: releasing & directing stimuli
Page 7

Pages 8 - 9 - 10

Pages 11 - 12

Primitive mammals & primates
Page 13

Pages 14 - 15 - 16

Figure 1: Defense
Page 17

Figure 2: Submission
Page 18

Figure 3: Interaction
Page 19

Figure 4: Offense
Page 20

Figure 5: Composite
Page 21

Open Peer Commentary
Pages 22-49

Author's Response:
motivational systems

Pages 50 - 51 - 52

Author's Response:
alternative analyses

Page 53

Author's Response:
specific questions

Pages 54 - 55 - 56

Author's Response:

Page 57

References A-E
Page 58

References F-M
Page 59

References N-Z
Page 60


Page 61


Nagy, J., and Decsi, L. (1973) Location of the site of the tranquilizing action of diazepam by intralimbic application. Neuropharmacology 12:757-68 [LD]

         (1974) Simultaneous chemical stimulation of the hypothalamus and dorsal hippocampus in the waking cat. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 2:285-92 [DBA, LD]

         (1977) Transmitter background of an emotional reaction of the cat. Activitas Nervosa Superior (Prague) 19:122-23 [LD]

Nauta, W. J. H. (1958) Hippocampal projections and related neural pathways to the midbrain in the cat Brain 81:319-40. [DBA]

Nieuwenhuys, R. (1967) Comparative anatomy of the cerebellum. Progress in Brain Research 25:1-93. [DBA]

O'Keefe, J. and Nadel, L. (1978) The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [DBA]

Olivier, B. (1977) The ventromedial hypothalamus and aggressive behavior in rats. Aggressive Behavior 3:47-56. [DBA]

Olton, D. S., and Gage. F. H. Role of the fornix in the septal syndrome: Physiology and Behavior 13:269-79. [DAY]

Ono, T., and Oomura. Y (1975) Excitatory control of hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus by basolateral amygdala in rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior (supplement)3:37-47. [DBA]

Orlovsky, G. N. (1970) Connections of the reticulo-spinal neurons with the "locomotor sections" of the brain stem. Biophysics 15:178-86. [DBA]

Orlovsky, G. N., and Shik, M. L. (1976) Control of locomotion: A neurophysiological analysis of the cat locomotor system. International Review of Physiology 10:281-317. [DBA]

Owen, K.; Peters, P. J.; and Bronson, F. H. (1974) Effects of intracranial implants of testosterone proprionate on intermale aggression in the castrated male mouse. Hormones and Behavior 583-92 [DBA]

Panksepp, J. (1971) Aggression elicited by electrical stimulation of hypothalamus in albino rats. Physiology and Behavior 6:321-29. [DBA, JP]

         (1971a) Effects of hypothalamic lesions on mouse-killing and shock-induced fighting in rats. Physiology and Behavior 6:311-16. [DJA, BS]

         (1980 in press) Hypothalamic integration of behavior: rewards, punishments, and related psychological processes. In Morgane, P., and Panksepp, J., eds. Handbook of the hypothalamus, vol.3, behavioral studies of the hypothalamus, Part B. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. [JP]

Panksepp, J.; Herman, B.; Conner, R; Bishop, P.; and Scott, J. P. (1978) The biology of social attachments: opiates alleviate separation distress. Biological Psychiatry 13:607-18. [JP]

Paxinos, G.; and Bindra, D (1972) Hypothalamic knife cuts: effects on eating, drinking, irritability, aggression and copulation in male rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 79:219-29. [DBA]

Perachio, A. A., and Alexander, M (1975) The neural basis of aggression and sexual behavior in the rhesus monkey. In Bourne, G. H., ed. The Rhesus monkey: anatomy and physiology. New York: Academic Press [DBA]

Peters, M., and Monjan, A. A. (1971) Behavior after cerebellar lesions in cats and monkeys. Physiology and Behavior 6:205-6. [GGB]

Plotnik, R; Mir, D.; and Delgado, J. M. R. (1970) Aggression, noxiousness and brain stimulation in unrestrained rhesus monkeys. In Eleftheriou, B F., ed. Physiology of aggression and defeat, pp. 143-221 New York: Plenum Press. [JMRD]

Pond, F. J.; Sinnamon, H M; and Adams, D B. (1977) Single unit recording in the midbrain of rats during shock elicited fighting behavior. Brain Research 120:469-85. [DBA, JMK]

Potegal, M.; Blau, A.; and Glusman, M (1978) Septal stimulation inhibits intraspecific aggression in hamster. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 4:364: [DBA]

Powell, D. A. (1974) Shock-elicited aggression: an animal model of defensive behavior. Paper presented at a symposium entitled Infrahuman models of experimental aggression. Eastern Psychological Association. [RJR]

Pribram, K. H., and Fulton, J. F. (1954) An experimental critique of the effects of anterior cingulate ablations in monkey. Brain 77:34-44. [DBA]

Reis, D. J. (1974) Central neurotransmitters in aggression. Research Publications of the Association for Research on Nervous and Mental Disease 52:119-48. [BE]

Reis, D. J.; Doba, N; and Nathan, M A (1973) Predatory attack, grooming, and consummatory behaviors evoked by electrical stimulation of cat cerebellar nuclei. Science 182:845-47. [GGB]

Renfrew, J. W. (1969) The intensity function and reinforcing properties of brain stimulation that elicits attack Physiology and Behavior 4:509-15. [DBA]

Reynierse, J. H. (1971) Submissive postures during shock-elicited aggression. Animal Behaviour 19:102-7 [RJR]

Roberts, W. W. (1962) Fear-like behavior elicited from dorsomedial thalamus of cat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 55:191-97. [DBA,RJW]

Roberts, W. W.; Steinberg, M. L; and Means, L W (1967) Hypothalamic mechanisms for sexual, aggressive and other motivational behaviors in the opossum. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 64:1-15. [DBA]

Robinson, B. W.; Alexander, M.; and Bowne, G. (1969) Dominance reversal resulting from aggressive responses evoked by brain telestimulation Physiology and Behavior 4:749-52. [DBA]

Rodgers, R. J., and Brown, K. (1976) Amygdaloid function in central cholinergic mediation of shock-induced aggression in the rat. Aggressive Behavior 2:131-52. [DBA, RJB, BE]

Rodgers, R. J.; Semple, J. M.; Cooper, S. J.; and Brown, K. (1976) Shock-induced aggression and pain sensitivity in rat: catecholamine involvement in corticomedial amygdala. Aggressive Behavior 2:195-204. [DBA]

Romaniuk, A.; Brudzinsky, S.; and Gronska, J. (1973) Specific changes in the defensive behavior of cats following injection of d-tubocurarine into the hypothalamic areas. Acta Physiologica Polonica 24:305-11. [LD]

Romaniuk, A., and Golebiewski, H. {1977) Midbrain interaction with the hypothalamus in expression of aggressive behavior in cats. Acta Neurobiologica 37:83-97. [DBA]

Ropartz, P.(1968) The relation between olfactory stimulation and aggressive behaviour in mice. Animal Behaviour 16:97-100. [RG]

Rosvold, H. E.; Mirsky, A. F.; and Pribram, K. H. (1954) Influence of amygdalectomy on social behavior in monkeys. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 47:173-78. [DBA]

Rothfield, L., and Harman, P. J. (1954) On the relation of the hippocampal-fornix system to the control of rage responses in cats. Journal of Comparative Neurology 101:265-8l. [DBA]

Ruth, R. E., and Rosenfeld, J.P. (1977) Dependence of photic cortical effects of aversive central gray stimulation on reticular activation. International Journal of Neuroscience 7:165-73. [DBA]

Ryon, C. J. (1979) Aspects of dominance behavior in groups of sibling coyote/red wolf hybrids. Behavioral and Neural Biology 25;69-78. [JCF]

Sandner, G.; Schmitt,P.; and Karli, P. (1979 in press) Central gray and medial hypothalamic stimulation; correlation between escape behavior and unit activity. Brain Research. [PK]

Saper, C. B.; Swanson, C. W.; and Cowan, W. M.( 1976) The efferent connections of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus of the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 169;409-42. [DBA]

Schaefer, K. P. (1970) Unit analysis and electrical stimulation in the tectum opticum of rabbits and cats. Brain, Behavior, and Evolution 3:222-40. [DBA]

Schmitt, P. and Karli, P.{1979 submitted for publication) Escape induced by combined stimulation in medial hypothalamus and central gray. [PK]

Schmitt, P.; Paunovic, V. R.; and Karli, P. (1979 in press) Effects of mesencephalic central gray and raphe nuclei lesions on hypothalamically induced escape. Physiology and Behavior 23(1). [PK]

Schneider, G. E. (l969) Two visual systems. Science 163:895-902. [DBA]

Schreiner, L., and Kling, A. (1953) Behavioral changes following rhinencephalic injury in cats. Journal of Neurophysiology 16:643-59. [DBA]

Schreiner, L.; Rioch, D. M.; Pechtel, C.; and Masserman; J. H. (1952) Behavioral changes following thalamic injury in cat. Journal of Neurophysiology 16;234-46. [DBA]

Sclafani, A. (1971) Neural pathways involved in the ventromedial hypothalamic lesion syndrome in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 77:70-96. [DBA]

Scott, J. P. (1966) Agonistic behavior of mice and rats; American Zoologist 6:683-701. [RJR]

Senault, B. (1968) Syndrome agressif induit par l'apomorphine chez le rat. Journal de Physiologie (Paris) 6O(suppl.2):543-44. [BS]

         (1970) Comportement d'agressivité intraspecifique induit par l'apomorphine chez le rat. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 18:271-87. [BS]

         (1973) Effets de lésions du septum, de l'amygdale, du striatum, de la substantia nigra et de l'ablation des bulbes olfactifs sur le comportement d'agressivité intraspécifique induit par l'apomorphine chez le rat. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 28:13-25. [BS]

         (1977) Effets de lésions de l'hypothalamus et du globus pallidus et d'injections d'apomorphine dans le globus pallidus; le noyau caudé, la substantia nigra et le septum sur le comportement d'agressivité induit par l'apomorphine chez le rat. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 55:135 [BS]

Severini, W. H. (1973) A lesion study concerning the functional role of the hypothalamus in competitive attack behavior. Wesleyan University undergraduate thesis. [DBA]

Shik, M. L., and Orlovsky, G. N. (1976) Neurophysiology of locomotor automatism. Physiological Reviews 56:465-501. [DBA]

Shipley, J. E., and Kolb. B. (1977) Neural correlates of species-typical behavior in the Syrian golden hamster. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 91:1056-73. [DBA]

Siegel, A., and Skog, D. (1970) Effects of electrical stimulation of the septum upon attack behavior elicited from the hypothalamus in the cat. Brain Research 23:371-80. [DBA]

Skultety, F. M. (1963) Stimulation of periaqueductal gray and hypothalamus. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 8;608-20, [DBA]

Slotnick, B. M., and McMullen. M. F. (1972) Intraspecific fighting in albino mice with septal forebrain lesions. Physiology and Behavior 8:333-37. [DBA]

Slotnick, B, M,; McMullen. M, F.; and FIeischer, S. (1973) Changes in emotionality following destruction of the septal area in albino mice. Brain, Behavior, and Evolution 8:241-52. [DBA]

Slusher, M. A., and Hyde. J. E. (1966) Effect of diencephalic and midbrain stimulation on ACTH levels in unrestrained cats. American Journal of Physiology 210:103-8. [DBA]

Snider, R. S. and Maiti, A. (1976) Cerebellar contribution to the Papez circuit. Journal of Neuroscience Research 2:133-146. [GGB]

Sødersten. P.; Berge, O-G.; and Hole, K. (1978) Effects of p-chloroamphetamine and 5,7 dihydroxytryptamine on the sexual behavior of gonadectomized male and female rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 9:499-508. [HU]

Sodetz, F.J., and Bunnell, B. N. (1970) Septal ablation and the social behavior of the golden hamster. Physiology and Behavior 5:79-88. [DBA]

Sodetz, F. J.; Matalka, E,S.; and Bunnell, B. N. (1967) Septal ablation and affective behavior in golden hamster. Psychonomic Science 7:189-90. [DBA]

Spiegel, E. A.; Miller, H. R.; and Oppenheimer, M. J. (1940) Forebrain and rage reactions. Journal of Neurophysiology 3:538-48. [DBA]

Sprague, J. M.; Chambers, W. W.; and Stellar, E. (1961) Attentive, affective, and adaptive behavior in the cat. Science 133:165-73 [DBA]

Stein, R. B.; Pearson, K. G.; Smith, R. S.; and Redford, J. B. (1973) Control of posture and locomotion. New York: Plenum Press. [RMC]

Strumwasser, F. (1967) Types of information stored in single neurons. In Wiersma, C. A., ed, Invertebrate nervous systems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 291-319. [DBA]

Studdert-Kennedy, M. (1976) Speech perception. In Lass, N. I., ed. Contemporary issues in experimental phonetics. pp. 243-93. New York: Academic Press. [JCF]

Svare, B.; Davis, P. G.; and Gandelman, R, (1974) Fighting behavior in female mice following chronic androgen treatment during adulthood. Physiology and Behavior I2:399-403. [RG]

Szentagothai, I.; Flerko, B.; Mess, B.; and Halasz, B. (1962) Hypothalamic control of the anterior pituitary. Budapest: Akademiai, Kiadu. [DBA]

Taghert, P. H., and Willows, A. O. D. (1978) Control of a fixed action pattern by single, central neurons in the marine mollusk, Tritonia diomedea. Journal of Comparative Physiology 123:253-59. [RMG]

Takahashi, L. K., and Blanchard, R. J. (submitted for publication) Attack and defense in wild and laboratory rats. [RJB]

Thompson, R. (1978) A behavioral atlas of the rat brain. New York: Oxford University Press. [DBA]

Thor, D. H., and Ghiselli, W. B. (1975) Vibrissal anesthesia and suppression of irritable fighting in rats: a temporary duration of effect in experienced fighters. Physiological Psychology 3:1-3. [DBA]

Thorne, B. M., and Linder, L. H. (1971) No change in emotionality of rats following bulbectomy. Psychonomic Science 24:207-8. [BS]

Tinbergen, N. (1951) The study of instinct. New York: Oxford University Pres. [DBA]

Toates, F. M., and Archer, I. (1978) A comparative review of motivational systems using classical control theory. Animal Behaviour 26:368-80. [PRW]

Tsubokawa, T., and Sutin.,l: (1963) Mesencephalic influence upon the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 15:804-10. [DBA]

Ueki, S.; Nurimoto,S.; and Ogawa,N.(1972) Characteristics in emotional behavior of the rat with bilateral olfactory bulb ablations. Folia Psychiatrica et Neurologica Japonica 26:229-39. [BS]

Ursin, H. (1964) Flight and defense behavior in cats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 58:180-86. [DBA, HU]

         (1965) The effect of amygdaloid lesions on flight and defense behavior in cats. Experimental Neurology 11:61-79. [HU, DAY]

         (1969) The cingulate gyrus -a fear zone? Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 68:235-38. [HU]

         (1972) Limbic control of emotional behavior. In Hitchcock, E.; Laitinen. L.; and Vaernet, K.. eds. Psychosurgery. Springfield, Ill: C. C. Thomas. [HU]

Ursin, H., and Divac, I. (1975) Emotional behavior in feral cats with ablations of prefrontal cortex and subsequent lesions in amygdala. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 88:36-39. [HU]

Ursin, H., and Kaada, B. R. (1960) Functional localization within the amygdaloid complex in the cat. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 12,1-20 [DBA]

Valenstein, E. S. (1973) Brain stimulation and motivation. Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman Co. [JP]

Valenstein, E. S.; Cox, V. C.; and Kakolewski, J. W. (I969) The hypothalamus and motivated behavior. In Tapp, J. T., ed. Reinforcement and behavior, pp, 242-87. New York: Academic Pres. [RB]

Vársegi. K. M., and Decsi, L. (1967) Some characteristics of the rage reaction evoked by chemical stimulation of the hypothalamus. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 32:61-68. [LD]

Veening, J. G. (1975) Behavioral changes induced by electrical stimulation of ventromedial hypothalamic area of rats: Brain Research 85:191. [DBA, RJB]

Vergnes, M., and Karli. P. (1963) Déclenchement du comportement d'agression interspécifique rat-souris par ablation bilaterale des bulbes olfactifs. Action de 1'hydroxyzine sur cette agressivité provoquée. Comptes Rendus des Séances de la Societé de Biologle (Paris) 157:1063-65. [BS]

von Holst, E. (1932) Untersuchungen über die Funktionen des Zentralnervensystems beim Regenwurm (Lumbricus terrestris L.), Zoologishes Jahrbuch (Physiologie) 51:547-68. [PL]

         (1933) Weitere Versuche zum nervösen Mechanismus der Bewegungen beim Regenwurm (Lumbricus terrestris L.) Zoologishes Jahrbuch (Physiologie) 53:67-100. [PL]

von Holst, E.. and von St. Paul, U. (1960) Vom Wirkungsgefüge der Triebe. Die Naturwiss. 18.409-22. (English version: On the functional organisation of drives. Animal Behavior 11:1-20, 1963) [PL]

Votaw, C L (1960) Study of septal stimulation and ablation in the macaque monkey. Neurology 10:202-9. [DBA]

Waldbillig, R J. (1975) Attack, eating, drinking and gnawing elicited by electrical stimulation of rat mesencephalon and pons. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 89:200-12 [DBA, RJW]

         (1979) The role of electrically excitable mesencephalic behavioral mechanisms in naturally occurring attack and ingestive behavior. Physiology and Behavior 22:473-77. [RJW]

Watson, P J (1978a) Behavior maintained by electrical stimulation of the rat cerebellum. Physiology and Behavior 21:749-55. [GGB]

         (1978b) Nonmotor functions of the cerebellum. Psychological Bulletin 85:944-67. [GGB]

Wheatley, M. D. (1944) The hypothalamus and affective behavior in cats: a study of the effects of experimental lesions. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 52:296-316. [DBA]

Wiepkema, P. R. (1978) Reactions on crowding. Proceedings of the Zodiac Symposium on Adaptation. pp 25-29. The Netherlands: Wageningen. [PRW]

Wilson, E. 0. (1975) Sociobiology: the new synthesis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. [DBA]

Wise, D A., and Pryor. T. L. (1977) Effects of ergocornine and prolactin on aggression in the postpartum golden hamster. Hormones and Behavior 8:30-39. [DBA, RC]

Wolfle, T. L.; Moyer, D. J.; Carder, B.; and Liebeskind, T. C (1971) Motivational effects of electrical stimulation in the dorsal tegmentum of the rat Physiology and Behavior 7:569-74. [DBA]

Woods, J. W. (1956) "Taming" of the wild Norway rat by rhinencephalic lesions. Nature 178:869. [DBA]

         (1964) Behavior of chronic decerebrate rats. Journal of Neurophysiology 27:635-44. [DBA]

Woodworth, C. H. (1971) Attack elicited in rat by electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus. Physiology and Behavior 6:345-53 [DBA]

Woodworth, R. S, and Sherrington, C. S. (1904) A pseudoaffective reflex and its spinal path. Journal of Physiology 31:234-43 [DBA]

Yaksh, T. L.; Yeung, J. C; and Rudy, T. A. (1976) Systematic examination in the rat of the brain sites sensitive to direct application of morphine: observations of differential effects within the periaqueductal gray. Brain Research 114:83-103. (DBA]

Yutzey, D. A.; Meyer, P. M.; and Meyer, D. R. (1964) Emotionality changes following septal and neocortical ablations. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 58:463-65. [DBA]

Zanchetti, A., and Zoccolini, A. (1954) Autonomic hypothalamic outbursts elicited by cerebellar stimulation. Journal of Neurophysiology 17:475-83. [GGB]

Zook, J. M, and Adams, D. B. (1975) Competitive fighting in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 88:418-23 [DBA]

Zucker, R. S. (1972) Crayfish escape behavior and central synapses. I. Neural circuit exciting lateral giant fiber. Journal of Neurophysiology 35:599-620. [RMG]

(end of section)

previous page
home page
next page