||6. Internal War and the External Enemy Image||Page 16|
A favored method of enemy image campaigns has been the press leak to the mass media, often from anonymous sources. In World War I, sources close to the APL and MID leaked a claim that the War Department had secretly put to death 14 enemy spies, apparently in an attempt to get more Congressional money for espionage (Jensen, 1991, p. 167). The truth is that only one German spy was caught in World War I (p. 177), while a US socialist of German descent was lynched (p. 169). Similarly, in World War II it was the Office of Naval Intelligence that leaked spy stories to editors of popular magazines as it tried to get Congressional appropriations for espionage (p. 212).
The use of press leaks about spies reached its peak in the hands of Senator McCarthy during the early years of the Cold War. It was not necessary for him to substantiate the leaks, because the damage was done with the initial announcement, and few people remembered later whether they were substantiated or not.
At the same time as the enemy image of the Soviet Union increased after the 1917 Russian Revolution, the references to class warfare in the United States all but disappeared from official parlance. It may be suggested that this correspondence was not accidental, but reflected a direct relationship, as domestic labor problems could now be blamed on the influence of the Russian communists. It got to the point after the McCarthy era that one would think from public statements of officials and from the mass media that the USA had become a classless society. Often, those who had the temerity to speak of social class, including leading academics and writers, were branded as communists. Once they were silenced, the analysis of social class and class warfare was left only to the communists themselves. This, in turn, was used to confirm that such an analysis was a foreign idea deriving from the Soviet Union. As recently as 1981, one of the early acts of the Reagan Administration was to forbid any federal funding of research focused on social class by ADAMHA, one of its largest funding agencies (American Psychological Association, 1982, p. 10).
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