A Statistical Analysis of the Social Behavior of the Male Stumptail Macaque(Macaca arctoides)
Conclusions Page 10

Title/summary page


Page 1


Materials and Methods
Pages 2 - 3


Pages 4 - 5 - 6 - 7


Pages 8 - 9


Page 10


Page 11


Figures 1- 8
Figures 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8


Tables I-IV
Tables I - II - III - IV

1. When socially isolated male stumptail macaques were paired in a large test cage, they engaged immediately and vigorously in agonistic and sexual interactions.

2. The behavioral repertoire was similar to that of adult male stumptail macaques that have been observed under both laboratory and field conditions.

3. The behavior could be analyzed and understood in terms of three channels of communication: acts and postures; vocalizations; and facial expressions.

4. Acts and postures occurred in nonrandom sequences both within the same monkey (43 nonrandom sequences) and between the two monkeys (40 nonrandom sequences).

5. Both frequencies of particular behaviors and particular dyadic sequences of behaviors depended upon relative dominance status of the two monkeys.

6. From an overall diagram of the nonrandom sequences within the same animal it was possible to distinguish six categories of acts and postures that may correspond to the activation of six motivational systems: offense; defense; submission; groom and contact; male sexual behavior; and display.

7. Vocalizations, in most cases, occurred in nonrandom association with sexual or submissive acts and postures.

8. Facial expressions could be divided into two types and correlated with acts and postures. The two dynamic expressions, the lip smacking face and the teeth chattering face, occurred primarily in association with sexual acts and postures. The other, static, expressions were analyzed in a new way, using an objective rating of the degree of mouth opening and lip retraction. When results of this analysis were correlated with acts and postures. it was possible to identify static facial expressions that had been described by previous investigators and which were associated with sexual, submissive, and defensive acts and postures.

9. The results were comparable to results obtained in a study of social interactions among chimpanzees.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of C. Balsom and L. Elmore in the collection of these data and Daniel Freeman for assistance on computer analysis. We thank V. Simon and B. Pope for their skillful technical drawing. And we especially thank the late J.P. Flynn for his comments on the manuscripts and stimulating support through this project.

previous page
home page
next page