Brain Mechanisms of Aggressive Behavior; An Updated Review
Motivational Mechanisms Page 5

Title page & Abstract
Page 1

Page 2

Page 3

Behavioral Descriptions
Page 4

Motivational Mechanisms
Page 5

Defense Motivational Mechanism
Pages 6-7

Offense Motivational Mechanism
Page 8

Interactions &
Hormone Effects

Page 9

Relations in Hypothalamus
Page 10

Sensory Analyzers of Offense & Patrol/Marking
Page 11

Sensory Analyzers of Familiarity
Page 12

Sensory Analyzers of Defense
Pages 13-14

Motor Patterning Mechanisms
Page 15

Sensory Analyzers for Releasing & Directing Stimuli
Page 16

Testing the Model
Page 17

Acknowledgements & References
Pages 18-19-20-21-22-23-24-25

Recent research demands a revision of the previous analysis of motivational mechanisms as a pool of neurons responsible for the animal's motivational state. I have abandoned the proposition that the pool of neurons is homogeneous and accepted instead that it has a certain degree of differentiation. Hence, the defense motivational mechanism is now proposed to have at least two differentiated pools of neurons, one mediating consociate defense and one mediating anti-predator defense, and the offense motivational mechanism is now proposed to include at least two differentiated pools of neurons, one mediating competitive fighting and one mediating territorial fighting. As shown in figure 1, the offense motivational mechanism is proposed to have two differentiated sets of inputs and a single uniform set of outputs. While most of the inputs and outputs of the defense motivational mechanism are similar for both consociate and anti-predator defense, the latter may have one differentiated input and one or several differentiated outputs, depending on the species concerned.

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