Why There Are So Few Women Warriors
5. Type of Warfare Determines Marital Residency Page 5

Title/Summary page

1. Introduction Page 1

2. Cross-Cultural Methodology
Page 2

3. Societies with Women Warriors
Page 3

4. The Exclusion of Women from War
Page 4

5.Type of Warfare Determines Marital Residency
Pages 5-6

6. The Prehistory of Warfare
Pages 7-8

7. Interaction of Biology and Culture
Page 9

8. Conclusion
Page 10

Pages 11-12-13-14-15-16

Footnote and References
Page 17

The causal relationship between marriage and warfare appear, to be a two way relationship not only may the type of marital residency help determine whether or not there are women warriors, but also the type of warfare may help to determine the type of marital residency. This may be seen from an examination of the full sample of cultures shown in Table 1. Cultures with internal warfare have, in most cases patrilocal marital residency and exogamy. Cultures with exclusively external warfare have, in most cases, matrilocal marital residency and, in most cases, there is no restriction that marriage must be exogamous. Finally, cultures with low frequencies of warfare tend to have no strict rules at all with regard to marriage, for example, they require neither patrilocality nor matrilocality and neither exogamy nor endogamy. These differences are significant by Chi Square tests, in which the cultures with internal war or exclusive external war, respectively, are compared to cultures with low rates of war, which suggests that the presence and type of warfare is a causal factor. Whereas 44 of 58 cultures with internal war are patrilocal, there is no such tendency in cultures with low rates of war (15 of 32) Chi Square = 6.4, probability less than .01 (Table 3). Whereas 14 of 25 cultures with exclusively external war are matrilocal, only 5 of 32 cultures with low frequency of war are matrilocal Chi Square = 8.7, probability less than .01 (Table 4). Finally, exogamy is associated with patrilocality. Of 67 patrilocal cultures, 30 are exogamous whereas in the appropriate control group of 24 bilocal and neolocal cultures, only two are exogamous, Chi square = 8.8, probability less than .01 (Table 5).

From the preceding data it would appear that internal warfare tends to cause patrilocal marital residency, external warfare tends to cause matrilocal marital residency, and lack of warfare tends to be associated with lack of strict residency rules. As mentioned earlier, the first two causal relationships have been suggested in previous literature (Ember and Ember, 1971). The relation of lack of warfare to lack of marital residency rules is a new suggestion.

(continued on next page)

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