Figure 2. Neural circuity for submission. Most of the inputs and outputs of the submission motivational mechanism, located in the midbrain central gray, are similar to those for defense, as shown in Figure 1. Motor patterning mechanisms differ in several respects, including ultrasound and submissive postures, and not including striking (in the cat) and the lunge-and-bite attack. The most significant difference consists of a necessary input from a "consociate modulator" (see text) located in the ventromedial hypothalamus, which receives motivating inputs from the fleeing control zone of the amygdala as well as from a circuit including the anterior thalamus-cingulate cortex-hippocampus-septum. These motivating inputs reflect familiar consociate stimuli. Another major input to the ventromedial hypothalamus comes from the anterior hypothalamus, but its functional significance is not known.