Education for a Culture of Peace: The Culture of Peace News Network as a Case Study

by David Adams

In Journal of Peace Education (2012) in press

Human history passed a watershed with the invention of nuclear weapons. As Einstein (1946) said, "the unleashed power of the atom has changed everything save our modes of thinking and we thus drift toward unparalleled catastrophe. . . " Prior to that, it was possible to accept warfare and its culture, the culture of war, as part of life. But since then, it has become clear that we can no longer live with war and the culture of war. The nuclear weapons that are deployed today are sufficient to destroy all life on the planet many times over.

It has become no longer possible to define peace as simply the absence of war. In the past, it could be assumed that the periods between wars were simply the preparation for the next war. Nowadays, the distinction is made by referring to "positive peace" as opposed to negative peace. But what is a "positive peace"?

This was a question for us at UNESCO when we drafted the resolution on a culture of peace which was eventually adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1999 (Adams, 2003). It was clear that the question involves more than disarmament. It involves the entire culture that has developed around warfare over thousands of years, conditioned by war and making possible war - the causal arrow points in both directions.

Hence our method was to analyze the culture of war and then enumerate alternatives to each of its elements as follows

Culture of War Culture of Peace
power characterized as the monopoly of force education for culture of peace
having an enemy tolerance and solidarity
hierarchical authority democratic participation
secrecy and propaganda free flow of information
armament disarmament
exploitation of people human rights
... and nature sustainable development
male dominance equality of women and men

In my book on the history of the culture of war (Adams 2008), I find that the eight elements of the culture of war evolved very early in human history. Of course, the culture of war has become more complex over time, but it continues to be based fundamentally on the same eight characteristics. With the origin of the state, there was the addition of internal military intervention and the institution of prisons and penal systems. Over time there were the additions of racism and nationalism, and most recently the military-industrial complex and the guns-for-drugs trade.

Unfortunately, the Great Powers at the UN were offended by the analysis of the culture of war (truth hurts!) and demanded that all mention of the culture of war be stricken from the resolution. Fortunately, however, the culture of peace analysis remained intact it was adopted unanimously by the UN Member States, which makes the resolution (United Nations, 1999) of great importance as a universal normative instrument and standard-setting document.

I like to consider that the culture of peace, like the culture of war, is an iceberg of which 90% is below the surface. The alternation of war and peace is only the 10% on the surface.

An increasingly important part of the 90% below the surface is the role of the mass media in the culture of war. In my analysis of the history of the culture of war mentioned above, I make a case that in the last century or two the media have become the principle weapon of the culture of war. This is a dialectical phenomenon, because it is a reaction to the increasing anti-war consciousness among people throughout the world. Ordinary citizens are less and less willing to accept the decision of their nation to go to war. To counter this development, the state and its associated military-industrial complex have had to control more and more the information that people receive in order to justify (or hide) their wars and preparations for war.

But there is yet another dialectical side to the evolution of the media: as a result of technological progress such as development of the Internet and its increasing accessibility, those of us working for a culture of peace have found a powerful new tool in their work for the development of an anti-war consciousness.

In the light of the preceding analysis, I propose in this paper to examine a case study of one such tool, the Culture of Peace News Network and to consider the principles of its operation.

Education for the culture of war

Before discussing CPNN, I would like to go into more detail on education for the culture of war, and, on the basis of that analysis, consider what should be an effective education for a culture of peace.

Education for war is probably the oldest form of organized education. Most societies encountered by ethnographers had a tradition of initiation of young men to be warriors, and we may assume that this was widespread in prehistoric times. To quote anthropologists who have specialized on the prehistory of war: "male initiation ceremonies function as the equivalent of basic army training in non-state societies by taking boys or young men away from their families, isolating them from females, and subjecting them to traumatic and grueling conditions" (C.Ember and M.Ember, 2007).

From the beginning, education for a culture of war was directed to men, since women were early on excluded from warfare. I go into the reasons for this in my one foray into anthropology (Adams, 1983). In any case, it is only in recent years that women have begun to have educational equality. Even in our own "advanced societies", women were not allowed into the most elite schools until 1946 (Ecole nationale de l'Administration), 1969 (Yale) and 1974 (Oxford).

To this day, history is often taught as the history of war, whether wars of independence, of revolution, of defense. And the "great men" of history remain the generals.

But there is also a more subtle and insidious aspect of traditional education. It teaches students to be passive and to follow orders. It prepares them for the hierarchical structures of governance which have always characterized the culture of war. After all, it would never have been possible to wage war if people would not follow orders! Ironically, in the centuries prior to the institution of public education, pupils were taught in the schools run by religious orders, that anger in the form of the righteous indignation of the prophets was a virtue. But with the advent of public education, anger was to be suppressed (C. Stearns and P. Stearns, 1989). Given that anger is the natural human response to injustice, this has produced generations of schoolchildren who are taught not to rebel but to accept injustice.

Paulo Freire (1968) is especially clear on the traditional functions of education to render the student obedient and passive. He calls it the "banking concept" of education:

"Education thus becomes an act of depositing, in which the students are the depositories and the teacher is the depositor. Instead of communicating, the teacher issues communiques and makes deposits which the students patiently receive, memorize, and repeat. This is the 'banking' concept of education, in which the scope of action allowed to the students extends only as far as receiving, filing, and storing the deposits . . "

"It is not surprising that the banking concept of education regards men as adaptable, manageable beings, The more students work at storing the deposits entrusted to them, the less they develop the critical consciousness would result from their intervention in the world. The more completely they accept the passive role imposed on them, the more they tend simply to adapt to the world as it is and to the fragmented view of reality deposited in them.

Two blatant examples of the "banking concept" of education in recent years are the policy of the "McDonaldization" of education by the former Assistant Director-General for Education at UNESCO (Daniel 2002) and the system of standardized tests used in the United States in the program "No Child Left Behind."

Freire contrasts the traditional "banking concept" with "problem-posing" education in which the teachers and students work together to solve problems. Freire insists that education should include action as well as information, and teachers and students should be learning from each other throughout the process. Similarly, the educational philosophy of Maria Montessori and the system of Montessori schools insists that the learning of students should take place through action and not through simply receiving and storing information.

As mentioned above, the mass media have become the most important aspect of education for a culture of war in recent years. Television and radio not only provide the mis-information that justifies war and the preparation for war, but most importantly, they teach passivity. The relation between the viewer/listener and the television or radio set is by its very nature passive. The viewer/listener cannot ask questions or challenge, but can only "change channels" and what we find is hundreds of channels with more or less the same message, the message that only money can buy.

The culture of war media emphasizes news about violence. Priority is given to violent events, whether man-made or natural (wars, riots, deadly accidents, hurricanes, volcano eruptions, etc.). This has several effects. 1) it reinforces the passivity of the viewer who is led to consider himself or herself as potential victims of violence. 2) It produces a climate of fear which further paralyzes activity. 3) it reinforces the conception that history is determined by force and violence. The policy is often justified by claiming that violent news is what people demand, and the media is simply responding to demand. However, if there is one lesson to be learned from the psychological studies that have been made on modern advertising, it is that "demand can be created."

Contributions to a general set of principles for culture of peace education

Some basic principles for culture of peace education were discussed in the report that we made from UNESCO to the UN General Assembly during the International Year of Peace (UNESCO, 2000). Although it does not mention the culture of war as such, its formulation was based on the analysis provided at the beginning of this article. Here are some excerpts from the report.

"Education should be engaged in the broad sense of the term - not only formal education in schools but also out-of-school and informal education in the full range of social institutions, including the family and the media. It should involve the full participation of Governments, intergovernmental organizations and the civil society. The strategy should follow the strategy adopted by the education ministers of the world for education for peace, human rights and democracy, an approach that is comprehensive and holistic, involving all educational partners and various agents of socialization, including non-governmental organizations and community organizations in a process of democratic participation. This should include reflection upon their own current values, attitudes and practices with respect to peaceful conflict resolution, in recognition of their impact as role models for young people. Education for a culture of peace should be based upon universal principles and at the same time build upon the unique traditions and experiences of each society."

In the UNESCO report, we discussed many aspects of formal education such as teacher training, classroom democracy, curriculum materials and textbooks, etc. which are not directly relevant to an Internet news service such as CPNN. One aspect, however, needs to be mentioned, and that is the need for linguistic pluralism in education.

The following discussion of informal education was more relevant to initiatives like CPNN: "By actively taking part in sports, dance, theatre and other athletic and artistic activities, children learn fair play, sharing and other values, attitudes and behaviours of a culture of peace. At the same time, they learn as observers and consumers of a wide range of communication and artistic products: books, films, paintings, theatre, dance, sporting events, music, games - the list is almost endless. As pointed out in the Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace, all those who are involved in the creation of these products have an obligation to promote in them the values, attitudes and behaviours of a culture of peace. At the same time, they should refrain from the promotion of violence, intolerance, racism and sexual exploitation"

We then singled out the mass media for particular attention because, "The advances in communication technology have greatly increased both the amount of time that each person interacts with the mass media and the effectiveness of the messages received . . .Writers, designers, directors, producers, distributors, managers, owners, shareholders and media enterprises in general are ultimately responsible for the content and effects of media productions. Therefore, they have the most basic responsibility to avoid intolerance, sexual abuse and excessive violence and to encourage the values, attitudes and behaviours of a culture of peace and non-violence."

One of the goals of CPNN has been to serve as a lever to push other mass media towards a culture of peace message. The idea was that if traditional news systems would begin to lose their audience to culture of peace news systems like CPNN, then they would be forced to follow our example and provide news of the culture of peace. In other words, as mentioned above, a demand could be created.

A brief history of CPNN

The Culture of Peace News Network was initiated in 1998 at UNESCO when I directed the unit for the International Year for the Culture of Peace. At that time we assigned a young staff member full-time to the initiative, and we had the assistance of Di Bretherton, an excellent peace researcher from Australia who took her sabbatical to come to Paris and work on the project.

The name "CPNN" was a deliberate play on words, since I have maintained that CNN is actually "CWNN", the culture of war news network. Whenever a war breaks out anywhere in the world, CNN is on hand to document it. They even have immediate background information which makes me think they must have a department in Atlanta, equivalent to the anticipatory obituaries in big newspapers, which prepare the backgrounders for all future wars.

It was not possible for UNESCO to continue taking responsibility for CPNN after I took my retirement from the organization in 2001, so I worked on it as an independent initiative. on the Internet. However, CPNN retained its UN identity to some extent since it was explicitly supported by the annual culture of peace resolutions of the UN General Assembly which called for its expansion into websites in many languages.

At that time there was also a website for CPNN-Japan that was managed by Takehiko Ito. I had hoped that the Japanese example would be joined by many others, so I started a relatively restricted site for New England, then a few years later expanding it to CPNN-USA. Over time, however, despite the UN demand, it became clear that there would not be other regional initiatives unless I started them myself.

I took advantage of the results of my work on the Midterm World Report on the Culture of Peace (2005) to expand CPNN into a global network. And as I write this, we are expanding the site to be in French and Spanish as well as English.

At the moment, the system still depends on me, but we have set up a corporation that has ownership of CPNN with a volunteer Board of Directors that has the power to continue CPNN when I can no longer manage it myself. Along with two members of the Board, we developed an extensive critique and renovation of the site this year (2011) and started recruiting and training young volunteer reporters from around the world to furnish articles. The initial Board members and volunteers came from the Youth Team that managed the World Report on the Culture of Peace presented to the UN at the end of the Decade (2010).

Readership of CPNN has grown slowly but steadily over time, from 20-30,000 visits per year in the early years of the decade, to 75,000 after the midterm decade report, to about 100,000 per year in the last few years.

Some basic principles: 1) The purpose of the media should be explicit.

Media associated with the culture of war have a purpose - they preserve the system in which they are "embedded" (the word "embedded" was popularized by the US military for the role of the media associated with its troops during the war in Iraq). Their purpose is almost never stated, because it is against the long-term interests of their audience. In order to preserve the system, they hide the "secrets of national security," they pass along the propaganda and mis-information of the military-industrial-governmental complex, and, perhaps most important, they keep the people passive and obedient.

It follows that media for a culture of peace should follow the opposite principle; its purpose should be made explicit. In fact, CPNN is explicit that one of its main goals is to serve as a tool for culture of peace education. Hence, the section "About Us" states that "CPNN is a project of the Global Movement for a Culture of Peace, initiated by the United Nations." And in the section on the Global Movement, it is stated that CPNN-WORLD is dedicated to the further development of the Global Movement." This movement was explicitly called for in the 1999 Culture of Peace Resolution of the United Nations. And to quote the words of another UN resolution (A/52/13 of 1997), its purpose is the "transformation from a culture of war and violence to a culture of peace and non-violence,"

Some basic principles: 2) Peace should be defined broadly as a culture of peace

CPNN is explicitly based on the United Nations Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace (UN, 1999) and it defines the culture of peace accordingly.

CPNN's main educational function is to inform people about the culture of peace and distinguish it from traditional definitions of peace that define it as the absence of war. Hence, for example, the CPNN website is organized along the eight "program areas" defined by the UN resolution as listed in the table above. In fact the articles that we receive and publish divide almost equally among the eight areas. If anything, education for peace is perhaps the most frequent, which is also what we found when we prepared the final report of the World Report on the Culture of Peace (2010).

The universality of the UN resolution and its analysis is key for the development of a Global Movement for a Culture of Peace. In this way, initiatives throughout the world, pertaining to all cultures, religions, political ideologies, etc., can take part in the same movement and their initiatives gain strength from the dialectic of their simultaneous universality and local relevance. Thanks to this shared basis, as the saying goes, all can "think globally and act locally."

Some basic principles: 3) News should be universal with all cultures and regions of the world given equal priority

Although, as described in the history above, we have not able to launch CPNN in all the UN languages and in all regions of the world, it has been our goal over time to broaden the scope of CPNN news to include all regions and cultures. This is difficult to achieve, but we are making progress. For example, the young reporters of CPNN in the photos of About Us on the website hail from most continents and from 25 countries: Africa (Ghana, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda); Arab States (Egypt, Oman); Asia (India, Iran, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan); Europe (Armenia, Bulgaria, France, Lithuania, Norway, Romania, Spain, Switzerland); Latin America (Brazil, Colombia, Mexico); and North America (USA).

At the present time, CPNN publishes articles in French, Spanish and Portuguese as well as English, with English translations of articles in the other languages. It would be good to have other languages represented as well, but the technical difficulties are so far overwhelming, especially for other official languages of the UN, Arabic, Chinese..

Some basic principles: 4) Action and reflection should go together

CPNN insists on the dialectic of action and reflection, in line with the analysis of consciousness development by Paulo Freire in Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Freire, 1968). Articles are presented in CPNN in two columns: in the left column is an article that must include some action or media production. The categories are events, campaigns and projects, community life, news from Internet, newspapers, etc., cinema or TV programs, books and print media, music and performing arts, and other arts. In the right column is discussion based directly or indirectly on the article. Whereas the articles must pass through an editor, the discussion can be entered directly by a reader through registering and logging in on the discussionboard.

Sometimes we receive articles written by readers that consist only of their ideas or reflections. According to the CPNN rules, these cannot be posted as articles; however, it has usually been possible to assign them to the discussion of an existing article that describes and action or media production.

In general, we receive more articles than we do discussion. I will come back to this imbalance later in discussing the development of an audience.

Some basic principles: 5) The news should be positive

The New York Times places at the top of its front page, the slogan "all the news that's fit to print." But they do not explain the criteria that they use in deciding what is fit to print.

At CPNN we are explicit about what is fit to print. Obviously, an article must pertain to at least one of the eight program areas of the culture of peace, and not contradict any of them (hence no advocacy of violence or use of racial or enemy stereotypes). But most important, we insist that actions must be positive.

There are many other Internet news services that support justice and peace, but for the most part, their articles are denunciations of injustice and violence. No doubt, there are times when injustice must be denounced, but I am not convinced that such "negative news" always adds to the motivation of social activists. While anger is an effective motivating emotion, fear is not; in fact, fear tends to inhibit action (Adams, 1985).

Some basic principles: 6) Media productions should be considered as news

Since films, books, music, etc. have become a significant source of information and attitude-change, they should be considered as an important part of the news.

We are hoping to arrive at the point where readers look regularly to CPNN to find media productions that promote culture of peace values. This requires a steady, extensive and informative supply of good reviews. Although we continually encourage our reporters to send us such reviews, unfortunately we have not yet reached this point at CPNN.

Some basic principles: 7) The news should be open to debate

It is a matter of principle at CPNN that its news should be debated. There is no way to be certain that any given news article is "true." Therefore, all articles are accompanied by discussion and an invitation to readers to respond. In this way, hopefully, if there are inaccuracies or questionable assumptions, these will be debated and/or corrected. As stated in the rules of CPNN: " No one ever has the last word on anything, so reports should give the impression that other readers are invited to give their view on the same news or media event. Even if those views are different, if they are expressed with respect and consideration, the dialogue and debate that follows should be enriching for everyone."

On a theoretical level, this principle is consistent with the view that history is so complicated, with so many factors and unknowns, that no one can definitively evaluate the significance of particular events.

On a practical level, this principle makes it easier for the editors to include articles with which they do not agree. For such articles, it is then important that there is an accompanying discussion that makes explicit the reasons for disagreement and therefore allows readers to decide for themselves about the merits of the question.

Some basic principles: 8) "Slow news" is as important as "fast news"

The commercial media emphasize "fast news" or what they often call "breaking news." This tends to ignore or mask the fundamental processes that make for deep historical change. The processes of historical change accumulate slowly over time. Only rarely do the contradictions arrive at a point of rupture or revolution, at which time events may take place very rapidly. Some readers may recognize this as one of the fundamental principles of dialectics, the favorite philosophy of many revolutionaries.

In this regard it is useful to regard the photographs and images that are submitted to illustrate the articles in CPNN. Many are pictures of people engaged in dialogue and meetings. Often there are photos of children. And often the logos or posters of organizations. And sometimes, the portraits of exemplary people. These would not normally be considered for the front page of most commercial media.

CPNN presents more information from civil society organizations than from governmental. This reflects the conviction that what is developing - slowly - is consciousness, and that ultimately it is consciousness that is the major factor in historical change. Hence, the original draft resolution for a culture of peace presented by UNESCO in 1998 (UN, 1998) called for a transformation of "the very concept of power" which should "transformed - from the logic of force and fear to the force of reason and love." These were the particular words of the UNESCO Director-General at the time, Federico Mayor.

Some basic principles: 9) The news should be expressed in the words of the actors

As much as possible, CPNN articles remain in the words of the author, with no attempt to impose a particular style or language. When articles are written in English by non-English speakers, it is sometimes necessary to make some clarifications, but if the sense is clear, we try to leave the words as they were written.

This is consistent with a view of history that it is not determined by "great men" but by the consciousness and actions of the people as a whole.

Some basic principles: 10) The readership should be participative

Perhaps our greatest challenge at CPNN is to develop a participative readership, a readership that writes for CPNN as well as reads it. This is slowly being accomplished, as more than a hundred readers have contributed articles in the last few years. But the pace is still much too slow.

In the monthly bulletin sent to about 3,000 readers, in addition to listing the most recent articles, we urge our readers to send us their news and media reviews. To subscribe to this bulletin, one simply sends a message to subscribe ( AT ) decade-culture-of-peace.org .

As mentioned above, readers do not very often take part in the CPNN discussions. Recently, we begin to see postings of reactions by readers to various media sites on the Internet, and hopefully this is a sign that readers are becoming more sophisticated and participative.

Some basic principles: 11) The work should be based on volunteers

CPNN started with a big budget. The Director-General Federico Mayor accorded it $100,000 from the monies received when the United Kingdom rejoined UNESCO, and this was used to fund contracts for the establishment of CPNN in all of the UNESCO languages. In fact some progress was made for Spanish, French, Arab, Russian and Chinese sites.

However, when the contracts ran out, the projects ceased.

Similarly, the great assistance that was provided by the full-time staff member and the visiting scholar (with a consultant contract) also ran out after the International Year in 2000, and it was necessary for me to do the work by myself.

Finally, we had a contract to develop the internet programming for the site which needed to be in a programming language so that the site could be interactive. When this was done, there was no further funding for programming, so I had to learn programming and be responsible for it myself.

Since an initiative like CPNN needs many years to develop its readership, this indicated to me that it is a mistake to rely on contracts or other such monetary payments. What is needed, instead, is a system of voluntary efforts. For example, now, we are developing a global network of volunteer reporters to provide the news.

Problems and Prospects

As mentioned above, CPNN readership, while it has increased, remains quite small in comparison to other news sources on the Internet. In this sense, it has not succeeded in its initial goal of leveraging the mass media towards more coverage of culture of peace news.

In addition, our readership remains to a great extent passive and does not participate fully in writing or discussing the articles. Since some of the important qualities of CPNN depend on reader participation (e.g. sections 6 and 7 above), this means that our site is not yet living up to its potential.

Furthermore, we have not achieved the extent of linguistic pluralism that a true culture of peace education system should have.

To some extent these weaknesses may be a function of the way CPNN is organized and managed. To a greater extent, however, it probably reflects the weakness of the global movement for a culture of peace at this point in time.

What is the status of the global movement? To answer this question, I turn to an analysis made at the time we started the UNESCO culture of peace program by a group of Latin American activists. They provided a vision of what a culture of peace movement should look like. One of these activists, Francisco Lacayo, took charge of the culture of peace project in El Salvador and we wrote an article about it in 1996 where he described the stages of development of a social movement, using as an example the movement for ecology (Lacayo et al, 1996):

Roughly speaking the global ecological movement has developed through the following stages:

1) A new paradigm is proposed which opposes the current paradigm regarding the society-nature relationship exposing it to be not viable and undesirable. The proposal is open to the participation to various sectors, so long as they share the same basic principles;

2) Promoters of the paradigm are able to achieve the adhesion of certain significant sectors within national and/or world society.

3) The initial adherents promote projects and actions through which the proposal becomes concrete, which leads to progress in the conceptual, strategic and tactical aspects of the proposal.

4) The scope of the proposal and its adherents grow and it becomes a national, regional and, later, worldwide movement.

5) The proposal becomes more institutionalized as organizations, associations, forums, agreements, and even laws emerge (UNCED Summit at Rio on the Environment and Development).

6) The proposal becomes more precise in its conception in terms of specific objectives which can be measured in terms of quantitative and qualitative indicators and limitations. The analysis of successes and failures makes possible its continuous refinement.

7) The proposal becomes internalized in the daily life of people, until it becomes a benchmark of a great majority of societies. At this point, there is also a negative tendency for the concept and its practices to become inflated and lose the necessary demand for changes in attitude and practice, as has happened earlier, for example, with the concept of democracy.

Considering the history of the culture of peace movement (see Adams, 2003), I think we can say that it has passed through the first five stages described by Lacayo and is presently in stages 6 and 7.

The present article is appropriate for stage 6: the measurement of quantitative and qualitative indicators. Specifically, we raise the question, to what extent does CPNN serve the movement as a source of information and inspiration?

To be effective, like a fish needs water, CPNN requires an extensive and effective social movement for the culture of peace, in other words a movement that has been internalized in daily life to the point that it is a benchmark of a great majority of societies. And we have not yet reached that point.

We are left with a dialectic relationship: CPNN cannot grow without the further development of the movement, and, at the same time, the movement needs sources of information and inspiration like CPNN in order to grow. We say "like CPNN" because there needs to be many sources of information and inspiration, not just one or a few.

I recall this dialectic relationship when we were young activists in the 60's. First, we took action. Then we looked around for veterans to tell us what and how we were doing. In many cases, we had to seek out those who had been active in the 30's in order to learn from them. It seems that each social movement begins by trying to reinvent the wheel, and then realizes that it needs to seek advice from previous generations of activists (Adams, 1985). I saw an example of this the other day when I visited the "Occupy New Haven" encampment and found a tent called "the study center" and a young man who wanted to know if I could give them advice from my experience in previous movements.

Looking back on the 60's in the United States, I recall I. F. Stone's Weekly as a role model for CPNN and other culture of peace information sites on the Internet. Of course, we did not have Internet in the 60's, so we received it by mail. We looked forward to it each week with its news about the Vietnam War and what was happening in the protest movement. By contrast to today's Internet, it was "slow news", but it was effective because we sought it out and found the information and inspiration we needed. .

What are the prospects for the further growth of the Global Movement for a Culture of Peace?

I think they are good. In the past year, we begin to see an awakening of activity such as we have not seen since the 1960's. It was kicked off by the Arab spring (which is not finished by any means) and is broadened by the movement against economic inequality that was launched with the "Occupy Wall Street" actions. The culture of peace movement is well positioned to develop in relation to these other social movements, because it addresses most of the fundamental contradictions that drive all others in the world today, those associated with the culture of war with its intrinsic violence, exploitation and anti-democratic structure.

How the movement will grow and what form it will take is not possible to predict. After all, who could have predicted one year ago either the Arab spring or the Occupy Wall Street movements?

Will CPNN need to change in order to serve the future development of the culture of peace movement? Certainly! But how? It depends on both the nature of the movement itself, and on the readiness of those directing CPNN to respond to its needs. We need our "ears to the ground" and our "wheels ready to roll."

References

Adams, D. 1983. Why There Are So Few Women Warriors. Behavior Science Research 18: 196-212. Available on the Internet at http://www.culture-of-peace.info/women/title-page.html .

Adams, D. 1985. The American Peace Movements: History, Root Causes and Future. New Haven: Advocate Press. Available on the Internet at http://www.culture-of-peace.info/apm/title-page.html .

Adams, D. 1987. Psychology for Peace Activists. New Haven: Advocate Press. Available on the Internet at http://www.culture-of-peace.info/ppa/title-page.html .

Adams, 2003. Early History of the Culture of Peace: A Personal Memoire. http://www.culture-of-peace.info/history/introduction.html .

Adams, 2008. The History of the Culture of War. Available for order or reading on line. http://www.culture-of-peace.info/books/history.html .

Daniel, J. 2002. Higher Education for Sale. Education Today. Published by the Education Sector of UNESCO. Available on the Internet along with critical commentary at http://www.swaraj.org/shikshantar/mceducationforall.htm

Einstein, A. 1946. A Brief History of the Bulletin [of Atomic Scientists]. Available on the Internet at http://web.archive.org/web/19980202194643/http://www.bullatomsci.org/nuclear/Bulletin.html

Ember, C., and M. Ember. 2007. War and the Socialization of Children: Comparing Two Evolutionary Models. Cross-Cultural Research 41: 96-122.

Freire, P. 1968. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Continuum International Publishing Group.

Lacayo Parajon, F., M. Lourenco, and D. Adams, 1996. The Unesco Culture of Peace Programme in El Salvador: An Initial Report. The International Journal of Peace Studies. 1: 1-20. Available on the Internet at http://www.gmu.edu/programs/icar/ijps/vol1_2/UNESCO.htm .

Stearns, C. and P. Stearns. 1989. Anger: The Struggle for Emotional Control in America's History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

UNESCO, 2000. International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World: Report of the Secretary-General. General Assembly document A/55/377. Available on the Internet at http://www3.unesco.org/iycp/kits/55377e.PDF .

United Nations, 1998. Consolidated report containing a draft declaration and programme of action on a culture of peace. General Assembly document A/53/370. Available on the Internet at http://culture-of-peace.info/annexes/resA-53-370/coverpage.html .

United Nations, 1999. Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace. General Assembly Resolution A/53/243. Available on the Internet at http://decade-culture-of-peace.org/resolutions/resA-53-243B.html .

World Report on the Culture of Peace. 2010. Available on the Internet at http://decade-culture-of-peace.org/2010_civil_society_report.pdf .

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