History: References
The History of the Culture of War
References 5,000 years of increasing monopolization of the culture of war by the state

The History of the Culture of War

What is culture and how does it evolve?

Warfare in prehistory and its usefulness

The culture of war in prehistory

Data from prehistory before the Neolithic

Enemy images: culture or biology

War and the culture of war at the dawn of history

--Ancient Mesopotamia

--Ancient Egypt

--Ancient China

--Ancient Greece and Rome

--Ancient Crete

--Ancient Indus civilizations

--Ancient Hebrew civilization

--Ancient Central American civilization

Warfare and the origin of the State

Religion and the origin of the State

A summary of the culture of war at the dawn of history

The internal culture of war: a taboo topic

The evolution of the culture of war over the past 5,000 years: its increasing monopolization by the state

--1.Armies and armaments

--2.External conquest and exploitation: Colonialism and Neocolonialism

--3.The internal culture of war and economies based on exploitation of workers and the environment

--4.Prisons and penal systems

--5.The military-industrial complex

--6.The drugs-for-guns trade

--7.Authoritarian control

--8.Control of information

--9.Identification of an "enemy"

--10.Education for the culture of war

--11.Male domination

--12.Religion and the culture of war

--13.The arts and the culture of war



Summary of the history of the culture of war


Adams, D. (1979) Brain Mechanisms for Offense, Defense and Submission, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2: 201-241. Available on the Internet at http://www.culture-of-peace.info/bbs/title-page.html

Adams, D. (1983). Why There Are So Few Women Warriors. Behavior Science Research. 18 (3): 196-212. Available on the Internet at http://www.culture-of-peace.info/women/title-page.html

Adams, D. (1986). The Role of Anger in the Consciousness Development of Peace Activists: Where Physiology and History Intersect, International Journal of Psychophysiology, 4: 157-164. Available on the Internet at http://www.culture-of-peace.info/psychophysiology/title-page.html

Adams, D. (1989). The Seville Statement on Violence: A Progress Report. Journal of Peace Research 26 (2): 113-121. Available on the Internet at http://www.culture-of-peace.info/ssov/title-page.html

Adams D. (1991). The Seville Statement on Violence: Preparing the Ground for the Constructing of Peace. UNESCO. Available on Internet at http://www.culture-of-peace.info/brochure/titlepage.html

Adams, D. (1992). Biology does not make men more aggressive than women. In Of Mice and Women: Aspects of Female Aggression, edited by K. Bjorkvist and P. Niemela, Academic Press, Inc., Pages 17-25. Available on the Internet at http://www.culture-of-peace.info/biology/title-page.html

Adams, D. (1995). Internal Military Interventions in the United States. Journal of Peace Research, 32 (2): 197-211. Available on the Internet at http://www.culture-of-peace.info/intervention/title-page.html

Adams, D. (2003). Early History of the Culture of Peace: A Personal Memoire. Available only on the Internet at http://www.culture-of-peace.info/history/introduction.html

Adams, D. (2006). Brain mechanisms of aggressive behavior: An updated review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 30: 304-318. Available at: http://www.culture-of-peace.info/update/abstract.html

Adams, D. (2007). Letter to My Academic Friends, available only on Internet at http://www.culture-of-peace.info/letter/Letter_to_Academic_Friends.pdf

Adams, D. (2009) World Peace through the Town Hall: A Strategy for the Global Movement for a Culture of Peace. Available on the Internet to read or to mail-order at http://culture-of-peace.info/books/worldpeace.html

Adams, D (2009) I Have Seen the Promised Land: A Utopian Novel. Available on the Internet to read or to mail-order at http://culture-of-peace.info/books/promisedland.html

Air America website. http://www.air-america.org

Aptheker, H. (1943). American Negro Slave Revolts. International Publishers, New York.

Arkush E. and C. Stanish (2005) Interpreting Conflict in the Ancient Andes: Implications for the Archaeology of Warfare. Current Anthropology 46 (1): 3-28.

Arrian (86-146). Tactica. In Brian Campbell. (2004). Greek and Roman Military Writers: Selected readings. Routledge.

Bachofen,, J. J. (1861). Mother Right: An Investigation of the Religious and Juridical Character of Matriarchy in the Ancient World.

Bacon, D. (2000). School Testing: An Education-Industrial Complex Is EmergingPublished in the Oakland Tribune, Sunday, April 16, 2000 Available at: http://www.commondreams.org/views/041600-109.htm

Bell, G. (1996). The Basics of Selection. Chapman & Hall, New York and London.

Bennetts, S. (2002). Review of Human Rights in the Ancient World by Richard Bauman, Routledge Classical Monographs, London and New York, 2000. Available at: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/AJHR/2001/11

Bernstein, C. (1977). The Cia And The Media: How Americas Most Powerful News Media Worked Hand in Glove with the Central Intelligence Agency and Why the Church Committee Covered It Up. Rolling Stone Magazine. Available on the Internet at http://carlbernstein.com/magazine_cia_and_media.php

Bible. King James Version.

Bonta, B. D. Website Peaceful Societies. Available on Internet at http://peacefulsocieties.org

Boulding, E. (1976). The Underside of History - A View of Women through Time. Westview Press.

Boulding, E. (2000). Cultures of Peace: The Hidden Side of History. Syracuse University Press.

Brownmiller, S. (1975). Against Our Will. Simon and Schuster.

Budholai, B. Environmental Protection Laws in the British Era. Available on the Internet at : http://www.legalserviceindia.com/articles/brenv.htm

Carneiro, R. L. (Ed.). (1967). The Evolution of Society: Selections from Herbert Spencer's Principles of Sociology. University of Chicago Press.

Carneiro, R. L. (1970). A Theory of the Origin of the State. Science, New Series, 169 (3947): 733-738.

Carneiro, R. L. (1987). Review of Development and Decline: The Evolution of Sociopolitical Organization by Henri J. M. Claessen; Pieter Van De Velde; M. Estellie Smith. American Ethnologist. 14 (4): 756-770

Chippindale, C. and Taçon, P. (1998). The Archaelogy of Rock Art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Claessen,, H. J. M., Van De Velde, P. and Smith, M. E. (1985). Development and Decline: The Evolution of Sociopolitical Organization, New York: Bergin & Garvey

Claessen, H. J. M. And Skalnik, P. (1978). The Early State. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Cooper, J. M. (1980). The Army and Civil Disorder. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Curtis, J., Tallis, N. and André-Salvini, B. (2005) Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia, University of California Press, 2005

Daniel, J. (2002). Higher Education for Sale, editorial in Education Today, publication of the Education Sector of UNESCO. Available with critical commentaries at: http://www.swaraj.org/shikshantar/mceducationforall.htm

Davis-Kimball, J. (1997). Warrior Women of Eurasia. Archaeology Magazine, Volume 50 Number 1, January/February.

Deflem, M. (1999). Warfare, Political Leadership, and State Formation: The case of the Zulu Kingdom, 1808-1879. Ethnology 38 (4): 371-391.

Derthick, M. (1965). The National Guard in Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Divale, W. T. (1974). Migration, External Warfare, and Matrilocal Residence Behavior Science Research 9: 75-133.

Divale, W. T. and M. Harris (1976). Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex, American Anthropologist. 78: 521-538.

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World Peace through the Town Hall


1) The difference between "peace" and "culture of peace" and a brief history of the culture of war

2) The role of the individual in culture of war and culture of peace

3) Why the state cannot create a culture of peace

4) The important role of civil society in creating a culture of peace

--Peace and disarmament movements

--Ecology movement

--Movements for human rights

--Democracy movements

--Women's movement

--International understanding, tolerance and solidarity

--Movements for free flow of information

--The strengths and weaknesses of civil society

5) The basic and essential role of local government in culture of peace

--Sustainable development

--Human rights

--Democratic participation

--Women's equality


--Transparency and the free flow of information

--Education for a culture of peace

--Security and public safety

--Some ongoing initiatives

6) Assessing progress toward a culture of peace at the local level

--Culture of peace measurement at the level of the state

7) Going global: networking of city culture of peace commissions

8) The future transition of the United Nations from control by states to popular control through local governmental representatives

9) What would a culture of peace be like?