Why There Are So Few Women Warriors
Footnote and References Page 17

Title/Summary page

1. Introduction Page 1

2. Cross-Cultural Methodology
Page 2

3. Societies with Women Warriors
Page 3

4. The Exclusion of Women from War
Page 4

5.Type of Warfare Determines Marital Residency
Pages 5-6

6. The Prehistory of Warfare
Pages 7-8

7. Interaction of Biology and Culture
Page 9

8. Conclusion
Page 10

Pages 11-12-13-14-15-16

Footnote and References
Page 17


1. a. Divale (1974) b, Ember and Ember (1975) c. Ember. Ember and Pasternak ( 1974) d. Melvin Ember (1974) e. Ember (1971) f. Horton (1943) g. Otterbein and Otterbein (1965) h. Otterbein (1970) and i. Tefft and Reinhardt (1974).


Adams, David B.

1979 Brain Mechanism for Offense, Defense, and Submission. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 201-241.

n.d. Contribution to a Statement on Violence. Unpublished Manuscript.

Best, Elsdon

1924 The Maori. Volume II. Wellington. New Zealand: H. H. Tombs.

Divale, William T.

1974 Migration, External Warfare, and Matrilocal Residence. Behavior Science Research 9: 75-133.

Divale, William T. and Marvin Harris

1976 Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex. American Anthropologist 78: 521-538.

Ember, Carol R .

1974 An Evaluation of Alternative Theories of Matrilocal Versus Patrilocal Residence. Behavior Science Research 9: 135-149.

Ember, Carol R.

1975 Residential Variation Among Hunter-Gatherers. Behavior Science Research 10: 199- 227.

Ember, Melvin

1974 Warfare, Sex-Ratio, and Polygyny. Ethnology 13: 197-206.

Ember, Melvin and Carol R. Ember

1971 The Conditions Favoring Matrilocal Versus Patrilocal Residence. American Anthropologist 73: 571-594.

Ember, Carol R. and Melvin Ember

1972 The Conditions Favoring Multilocal Residence. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 28: 382-400.

Ember, Carol R., Melvin Ember, and Burton Pasternak

1974 On the Development of Unilineal Descent. Journal of Anthropological Research 30: 69-94.

Erdland, August

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Harris, Marvin

1977 Cannibals and Kings. New York: Random House.

Heider. Karl G.

1970 The Dugum Dani: A Papuan Culture in the Highlands of West New Guinea. Chicago: Aldine.

Hill, Willard W.

1936 Navaho Warfare. New Haven: Yale Press.

Horton, Donald

1943 The Functions of Alcohol in Primitive Societies: A Cross-Cultural Study. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 4: 199-320.

Kinietz, William v.

1946 Delaware Culture Chronology. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society.

Kroeber, Alfred L.

1908 Ethnology of the Gros Ventre. New York: American Museum of Natural History.

Lee, Richard B.

1979 The !Kung San. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lorenz, Konrad

1966 On Aggression. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.

Lowie, Robert H.

1935 The Crow Indians. New York: Farrar and Rinehart.

Meggitt, Mervyn

1977 Blood Is Their Argument: Warfare Among the Mae Enga Tribesmen. Palo Alto, California: Mayfield.

Michelson, Truman

1937 Fox Miscellany. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of American Ethnology.

Murdock, George P., Clellan S. Ford, Alfred E. Hudson, Raymond Kennedy, Leo W. Simmons, and John W. M. Whiting

1967 Outline of Cultural Materials. New Haven: HRAF Press.

Murdock, George P.

1967 Ethnographic Atlas. Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press.

Otterbein, Keith F.

1968 Internal War: A Cross-Cultural Study. American Anthropologist 70: 277-289.

Otterbein, Keith F.

1970 The Evolution of War: A Cross-Cultural Study. New Haven: HRAF Press.

Otterbein, Keith F. and Charlotte S. Otterbein

1965 An Eye for an Eye, a Tooth for a Tooth: A Cross-Cultural Study of Feuding. American Anthropologist 67: 1470-1482.

Tefft, Stanton K. and Douglas Reinhardt

1974 Warfare Regulation: A Cross-Cultural Test of Hypotheses Among Tribal Peoples. Behavior Science Research 9: 151-172.

Turnbull, Colin M.

1961 The Forest People: A Study of the Pygmies of the Congo. New York: Simon and Schuster .

Wallace, Ernest and Hoebel, Edward A.

1952 The Comanches: Lords of the South Plains. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Williams, Francis E.

1930 Orokaiva Society. London: Oxford University.

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