THE AMERICAN PEACE MOVEMENTS
NOTES Page 35

Title page

Summary

Foreward to 2002 edition

Chapter 1: The Anti-Imperialist League 1898-1902
Pages 3 - 4

Chapter 2: The People's Council 1917-1919
Pages 5 - 6 - 7

Chapter 3: The American League Against War and Fascism and the Emergency Peace Campaign 1933-1939
Pages 8 - 9 - 10

Chapter 4: The Progressive Citizens of America 1946-1948
Pages 11-12

Chapter 5: The "Mobes" against the Vietnam War 1966-1970
Pages 13-14

Chapter 6: The Nuclear Freeze Movement and People-to-People Diplomacy 1980-1990
Pages 15-16-17-18

Chapter 7: Global Movement for a Culture of Peace 2000-
Pages 19-20-21

Chapter 8: The Root Causes of War
Pages 22-23-24-25-26-27

Chapter 9: The Future of the Peace Movement
Pages 28-29-30-31

Notes
Pages 32-33-34-35-36

Acknowledgements
Page 37


10. The first strike policy outlined in Carter's Presidential Directive 59 in 1979 was not the beginning of first strike strategy, although it was more public and aroused more concern than previous such policy documents. As described in detail by Robert Aldridge (First Strike: The Pentagon's Strategy for Nuclear War, South End Press, Boston, 1983), it was the culmination of a policy that reaches back into the 1950's. Aldridge's book not only describes the policy, but is also an authoritative source on first-strike weapons systems and it has a very readable analysis of the military-industrial complex as the main source of the nuclear war threat. The exact wording of the Freeze proposal is taken from Randall Forsberg's original article, "Call to Halt the Nuclear Arms Race - Proposal for a Mutual U.S. Soviet Nuclear Weapons Freeze", Bulletin of Peace Proposals, Vol. 12, No. 4 (1981). Soviet agreement to the Freeze proposal at the UN was reported in Disarmament Times, Vol v, No. 24, 1982. The process of Soviet internal deliberations that led to heir acceptance of the Freeze is described by Marilyn Bechtel in The Soviet Peace Movement: From the Grass Roots, published in 1984 by the National Council for American-Soviet Friendship. The Gallup Poll results are quoted from the New Haven Advocate, Sept. 22, 1982. The quotation on the attitude of the National Freeze Campaign regarding Soviet agreement with the freeze was from Emily Denitto, The Freeze Movement Needs the Grassroots, Daily World, Oct. 24, 1985. The quotations from Gorbachev are taken from his book Perestroika, 1987, Harper and Row, page 140, and from an interview with him in The Nation in their edition of February 2/9, 1998.

11. Economic Notes, Vol 52, No. 9, 1984. The unions include: Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union; American Federation of state, Country and Municipal Employees; American Federation of Teachers; Communication Workers of America; International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers; International Chemical Workers Union, International Longshoresmen's and Warehousemen's Union; National Association of Letter Carriers; National Education Association; National Union of Hospital and Health Care Employees (1199); The Newspaper Guild; Screen Actors Guild; Service Employees International Union; United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America; United Cement, Lime, Gypsum and Allied Workers; United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers; Also the Coalition of Black Trade Unionists and the Coalition of Labor Union Women.

12. From ancient times, women have been excluded from any participation in warfare. To understand how this came about, I have used the scientific method of cross-cultural analysis and concluded that it resulted from a contradiction between the prehistoric institutional structures of marriage and warfare Wives tended to be taken from outside the community, and often from villages of the "enemy." During a war, they could not be trusted to fight for their husbands and against their fathers and brothers. (Why There Are So Few Women Warriors, Behavior Science Research, Vol. 18, No. 3, ages 196-212, 1983).

13. Although a full account of the Peoples Peace Appeal has never been published, I have deposited a set of documents from the campaign at the Wesleyan University Library so that they are accessible to scholars.

14. Most of the relevant documents for the International Year for the Culture of Peace and for the Decade follow-up, including an account of where the 75 million signatures came from, are available on-line from UNESCO at http://www3.unesco.org/iycp.

15. Evidence to contradict the myth that war is intrinsic to human nature is summarized in the Seville Statement on Violence, published in booklet form by UNESCO in 1990. The Statement and its history are available on the Internet at

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