A Statistical Analysis of the Social Behavior of the Male Stumptail Macaque(Macaca arctoides)
Results Page 6

Title/summary page


Page 1


Materials and Methods
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Figures 1- 8
Figures 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8


Tables I-IV
Tables I - II - III - IV

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Within-Animal Sequences

Sequences of acts and postures within each animal were highly structured and nonrandom. There were 43 statistically significant behavioral dyads of acts and postures that occurred more than twice during the study. These are listed in Table III which presents results from the computerized two-way frequency table analysis. In addition to the 43 dyads that occurred more than twice, there were dyads that were eliminated from the data matrix by the computer analysis because they occurred less frequently than expected by chance, or that occurred only once or twice. Table III also presents the obtained frequencies and obtained/expected ratios of the various significant behavioral dyads which varied as a function of the relative dominance of the two animals being tested.

Dominant monkeys had more nonrandom within-animal sequences than did subordinates. This may be seen from Figure 4 and Figure 5, in which all significant dyads that occurred more than twice have been arranged into flow charts for the dominants and subordinates, respectively. In dominant monkeys the dyads are mostly connected into a coherent pattern that reflects how the dominant monkey was in control of the situation and could determine its own behavioral sequences. In subordinate monkeys, the dyads are fragmentary, consisting mostly of repetitions of the same behavior, and in a few cases, consisting of highly structured and complex sequences. This reflects how the subordinate's behavior was more determined by the acts of its opponent than by its own internally generated behavioral sequencing.

In dominants, three clusters of behavior are evident in Figure 4; these may correspond to the operation of three motivational systems. There is one cluster that includes biting- the-back (offense behaviors), one that includes mounting and is accompanied by lip smacking and teeth chattering (sexual behaviors), and one that includes behaviors that may be called display; patrol; repeated bouncing; and barking vocalization. It is also possible that cage climbing and cage shaking may be related to the other display behaviors. Allogrooming and self-grooming sequences occur separately from the other behavioral sequences.

Frontal biting and its related sequences occurred only in tests involving two dominant monkeys and never between dominants and subordinates. In this respect it was unlike any of other sequences shown in Figure 4 which occurred in dominants with either type of opponent. As will be discussed later, it may reflect a different motivational system than biting-the-back and associated offense behaviors.

In subordinates, as shown in Figure 5, there is no cluster of offense/defense behavioral sequences, but instead there is a sequence of behaviors that may be considered as submissive (standing, crouching, hitting out without contact, along with associated vocalizations and facial expressions). This cluster may correspond to the operation of a motivational system of submission which occurs in response to offense by the opponent as will be considered in the following section on between-animal sequences.

Triadic analysis confirmed the representation of dyadic data shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5. Most of the possible triads that could be constructed from those figures actually did occur at frequencies much higher than would be expected by chance. The only exceptions were caused by the fact that hitting and yanking the opponent often terminated a dyadic offense sequence rather than being followed by further offense behaviors which would have completed a triadic sequence.

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