Brain Mechanisms of Aggressive Behavior; An Updated Review
Acknowledgements and References-I Page 18

Title page & Abstract
Page 1

Page 2

Page 3

Behavioral Descriptions
Page 4

Motivational Mechanisms
Page 5

Defense Motivational Mechanism
Pages 6-7

Offense Motivational Mechanism
Page 8

Interactions &
Hormone Effects

Page 9

Relations in Hypothalamus
Page 10

Sensory Analyzers of Offense & Patrol/Marking
Page 11

Sensory Analyzers of Familiarity
Page 12

Sensory Analyzers of Defense
Pages 13-14

Motor Patterning Mechanisms
Page 15

Sensory Analyzers for Releasing & Directing Stimuli
Page 16

Testing the Model
Page 17

Acknowledgements & References
Pages 18-19-20-21-22-23-24-25


I would like to acknowledge and give thanks to the many students at Wesleyan University from 1971 through 1993 who worked with me on the brain mechanisms of aggressive behavior, as well as to Harry Sinnamon, my colleague throughout those years, whose suggestions were always helpful, including on the present review paper.


Adams, D.B., 1968a. The response of single cells in the midbrain and hypothalamus of the cat during affective defense behavior. Arch. ital. Biol. 106, 243-269.

Adams, D.B., 1968b. Cells related to fighting behavior recorded from midbrain central gray neuropil of cat. Science 159, 894-896.

Adams, D.B., 1971. Defence and territorial behaviour dissociated by hypothalamic lesions in the rat. Nature 232, 573-574.

Adams, D.B., 1979a. Brain mechanisms for offense, defense, and submission. Behav. Brain. Sci. 2, 200-241.

Adams, D.B., 1979b. Inborn and acquired aspects of offense and defense motivational systems in muroid rodents: Role of memory, in: Oniani, T. (Ed), Neurophysiological Bases of Memory. Tbilisi, USSR, pp. 149-160. available on-line at

Adams, D.B., 1980. Motivational systems of agonistic behavior in muroid rodents: A comparative review and neural model. Aggress. Behav. 6, 295-346.

Adams, D.B., 1981. Motivational systems of social behavior in male rats and stumptail macaques: Are they homologous? Aggress. Behav. 7, 5-18.

Adams, D.B., 1983. Hormone-brain interactions and their influence on agonistic behavior, in: Svare, B.B. (Ed), Hormones and Aggressive Behavior, Plenum, New York , pp. 223-245.

Adams, D.B., 1986. Ventromedial tegmental lesions in the rat abolish offense without disturbing predation or defense. Physiol. Behav. 38, 165-168.

Adams, D.B., Boudreau, W., Cowan, C.W., Kokonowski, C., Oberteuffer, K., Yohay, K., 1993. Offense produced by chemical stimulation of the anterior hypthalamus of the rat. Physiol. Behav. 53,1127-1132.

Adams, D.B., Cowan, C.W., Marshall, M.E., Stark, J., 1994. Competitive and territorial fighting: Two types of offense in the rat. Physiol. Behav. 55, 247-254.

Adams, D.B., Schoel, W.M., 1982. A statistical analysis of the social behavior of the male stumptail macaque (Macaca arctoides). Am. J. Primatol. 2, 249-273.

Albert, D.J., Dyson, E.M., Walsh, M.L., Gorzalka, B.B., 1987, Intermale social aggression in Rats: Suppression by medial hypothalamic lesions independently of enhanced defensiveness or decreased testicular testosterone. Physiol. Behav. 39, 693-698.

Albert, D.J., Walsh, M.L., 1984. Neural systems and the inhibitory modulation of agonistic behavior: A comparison of mammalian species. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 8, 5-24.

Albert, D.J., Walsh, M.L., Gorzalka, B.B., Mendelson, S., Zalys, C., 1986. Intermale social aggression: Suppression by medial preoptic lesions. Physiol. Behav. 38, 169-173.

Bandler, R., 1982. Induction of rage following micro-injections of glutamate into midbrain but not hypothalamus of cats, Neurosci. Lett. 30, 183-188.

Bandler, R., Shipley, M.T., 1994. Columnar organization in the midbrain central gray: modules for emotional expression? Trends Neurosci. 17, 379-389.

Baxter, B.L., 1968. Elicitation of emotional behavior by electrical or chemical stimulation applied at the same loci in cat mesencephalon. Exp. Neurol. 21, 1-10.

Bean, N.J., Conner, R., 1978. Central hormonal replacement and home-cage dominance in castrated rats. Horm. Behav. 11, 100-109.

Bergvall, A.H., Hansen, S., 1990. Female-enhanced aggression in male-rats - Effects of genital anesthesia, castration, or preoptic lesions. Behav. Neurosci. 104, 348-355.

previous page
home page
next page