Brain Mechanisms of Aggressive Behavior; An Updated Review
References-2 Page 19

Title page & Abstract
Page 1

Page 2

Page 3

Behavioral Descriptions
Page 4

Motivational Mechanisms
Page 5

Defense Motivational Mechanism
Pages 6-7

Offense Motivational Mechanism
Page 8

Interactions &
Hormone Effects

Page 9

Relations in Hypothalamus
Page 10

Sensory Analyzers of Offense & Patrol/Marking
Page 11

Sensory Analyzers of Familiarity
Page 12

Sensory Analyzers of Defense
Pages 13-14

Motor Patterning Mechanisms
Page 15

Sensory Analyzers for Releasing & Directing Stimuli
Page 16

Testing the Model
Page 17

Acknowledgements & References
Pages 18-19-20-21-22-23-24-25

Bermond, B., 1982. Effects of medial preoptic hypothalamus anterior lesions on three kinds of behavior in the rat: intermale aggressive, male-sexual, and mouse-killing behavior. Aggress. Behav. 8, 335-354.

Bester-Meredith, J.K., Marler, C.A., 2001. Vasopressin and aggression in cross-fostered California mice (Peromyscus californicus) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). Horm. Behav. 40, 51-64.

Blanchard, D.C., Blanchard, R.J., Lee, E.M., Nakamura, S., 1979. Defensive behaviors in rats following septal and septal-amygdala lesions. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 93, 378-390.

Blanchard, D.C., Chun, I.L., Hubbard, D., Markham, C.M., Yang, M., Takahashi, L.K., Blanchard, R.J., 2003. Dorsal premammillary nucleus differentially modulates defensive behaviors induced by different threat stimuli in rats, Neurosci. Lett. 345, 145-148.

Blanchard, D.C., Griebel, G., Rodgers, R.J., Blanchard, R.J., 1998. Benzodiazepine and serotonergic modulation of antipredator and conspecific defense. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 22, 597-612.

Blanchard, D.C., Popova, N.K., Plyusnina, I.Z., Velichko, I.L., Campbell, D., Blanchard, R.J., Nikulina, J., Nikulina, E.M., 1994. Defensive reactions of wild-type and domesticated wild rats to approach and contact by a threat stimulus. Aggres. Behav. 20, 387-397.

Blanchard, D.C., Williams, G., Lee, E.M., Blanchard, R.J., 1981. Taming of wild Rattus norvegicus by lesions of the mesencephalic central gray. Physiol. Psychol. 9, 157-163.

Blanchard, R.J., Blanchard, D.C., Agullana, R., Weiss, S.M., 1991. 22 kHz alarm cries in the laboratory rat. Physiol. Behav. 50, 967-972.

Blanchard, R.J., Flannelly, K.J., Blanchard, D.C., 1986. Defense behaviors of laboratory and wild Rattus norvegicus. J. Comp. Psychol. 100, 101-107.

Blanchard, R.J., Hebert, M.A., Ferrari, P., Palanza, P., Figueira, R., Blanchard, D.C., Parmigiani, S., 1998. Defensive behaviors in wild and laboratory (Swiss) mice: The mouse defense test battery. Physiol. Behav. 65, 201-209.

Brandao, M.L., Anseloni, V.Z., Pandossio, J.E., De Araujo, J.E., Castilho, V.M., 1999. Neurochemical mechanisms of the defensive behavior in the dorsal midbrain. Neurosci. Biobeh. Rev. 23, 863-875.

Brandao, M.L., Melo, L.L., Cardoso, S.H., 1993. Mechanisms of defense in the inferior colliculus. Behav. Brain Res. 58, 49-55.

Brennan, P.A., Schellinck, H.M., Keverne, E.B., 1999. Patterns of expression of the immediate-early gene egr-l in the accessory olfactory bulb of female mice exposed to pheromonal constitutents of male urine. Neuroscience 90, 1463-1470.

Brown, R.E., 1986. A motivational analysis of odor investigation and urine marking in male rats. Psychol .Rec. 36, 69-79.

Brown, R.E., 1991. Effects of rearing condition, gender, and sexual experience on odor preferences and urine marking in Long-Evans rats. Anim. Learn. Behav. 19, 18-28.

Brudzynski, S.M., 1981. Carbachol-induced agonistic behavior in cats: Aggressive or defensive response? Acta Neurobiolog. Exp. 41, 15-32.

Brudzynski, S.M., McLachlan, R.S., Bihari, F., Girvin, J.P., 1991. Response of neurons of the rat anterior hypothalamic-preoptic area to carbachol. Brain Res. Bull. 26, 929-934.

Canteras, N.S., 2002. The medial hypothalamic defensive system: Hodological organization and functional implications. Pharm. Biochem. Behav. 71, 481-491.

Canteras, N.S., Chiavegatto, S., Ribeiro do Valle, L.E., Swanson, L.W., 1997. Severe reduction of rat defensive behavior to a predator by discrete hypothalamic chemical lesions. Brain Res. Bull. 44, 297-305.

Carobrez, A.P., Teixeira, K.V., Graeff, F.G., 2001. Modulation of defensive behavior by periaqueductal gray NMDA/glycine-B receptor. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 25, 697-709.

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